Teamwork and its relationship to interprofessional collaboration:
Teamwork is the interaction or relationship of two or more health professionals who work interdependently to provide care for patients. Teamwork means members of the team:
- are mutually dependent;
- see themselves as working collaboratively for patient-centred care;
- benefit from working collaboratively to provide patient care;
- share information that may lead to shared decision-making; and
- know when teamwork should be used to optimize patient-centred care (Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, 2006).
Fee for service: “The method of billing for health services whereby a physician or other practitioner charges the payer (whether it be the patient or his/her health insurance plan) separately for each patient encounter or service rendered” (Levitt, 2005).
Alternative funding models: Include: (1) “block funding,” whereby health-care providers are paid based on population needs or per capita allocation, with health outcome targets; (2) “pay for performance,” whereby health-care providers are paid based on achievement of health outcome targets (Levitt, 2005).
Framingham risk assessment: The Framingham risk assessment tool uses data from the Framingham Heart Study to estimate 10-year risk for coronary heart disease outcomes (myocardial infarction and coronary death). The risk factors included in the Framingham calculation are age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, and smoking (Therapeutics Initiative, 2007).
Ankle-brachial index assessment: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a simple but reliable means for diagnosing Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). Blood pressure measurements are taken at the arms and ankles using a Doppler and blood pressure cuff. The ABI test is usually performed in a vascular lab but is simple enough to be performed in any family practice setting. Not only is the ABI one of the most reliable tests for PAD, it is also the least expensive (Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, 2005).