Prevention and Treatment

Prevention and Treatment


General prevention measures for the public include:1

  • Staying up to date with COVID-19 vaccinations
  • Following public health recommendations according to local authorities
  • Assessing level of risk and making informed decisions on public health measures to protect yourself and those around you from COVID-19 infection
  • Following travel advisories before and following travel

Prevention for nurses, health-care providers and health-care settings include all of the above, as well as the following infection prevention and control measures:2

  • Prompt identification of symptomatic persons/possible cases
  • Appropriate risk assessment
  • Management and placement of probable and confirmed cases

Administrative controls can assist with preventing exposure:

  • Triage for identification and placement of patients
  • Masks, tissues and alcohol-based hand rub at all entrances
  • Prominent signage instructing symptomatic patients to promptly present to health-care providers
  • Minimizing visitation to essential visitors and movement within hospital

Personal protective equipment (PPE):

For routine practice, it is recommended that all health-care staff wear a medical mask for the entire duration of their shift.

For additional precaution, health-care staff should wear the following PPE when entering the room or within two metres of a patient who has been exposed to, diagnosed with, or presents with signs or symptoms of COVID-19:3

  • Gloves
  • Long-sleeved gown
  • Facial protection such as a surgical mask and eye protection, face shield, or surgical/procedural mask with visor attachment
  • N95 respirator and eye protection should be worn when performing aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMPs) ) or if there is a risk in being exposed to aerosolized COVID-19

Knowledge/resource/practice gaps

See CNA’s position on PPE and related knowledge/resource/practice gaps.


Since the onset of the pandemic, several therapeutic treatments for COVID-19 have been developed and authorized for use in Canada. Supportive treatments may continue to be used to manage and ease symptoms of COVID-19.

For health professionals, provincial and territorial authorities provide guidance for the management of COVID-19, including administration of these treatments. Please refer to your regional health authorities for more information.